In the end, all of the boys were released except Haywood Patterson who was sent to Attison Prison Farm where he worked twelve hours a day under the hot sun with the other prisoners.
Patterson wasn’t released because the jury said that he looked like a rapist and therefore could not be trusted.
Eventually, Patterson escaped from the prison farm along with eight other prisoners.
Their lives continued in despair, even after they were all free, the majority of them died either in prison or elsewhere.
Only Clarence Norris built up a new life in the north where he waited thirty years for a pardon from the Alabama Court and the Parole Board, which he eventually received in the end.
We urge your intervention.” Despite the concern of the defense attorneys, there were no indications here today that Judge Callahan contemplated the summoning of troops, and officials and townsfolk insisted that there was no need for his doing so. Knight Jr., who is to prosecute the Negroes on charges of attacking two white girls in a freight car in March, 1931, indicated that he regarded the presence of militiamen at the last trial as a needless expense.
Sheriff Bud Davis left here with one deputy this afternoon with an order on the Sheriff of Jefferson County for a transfer of the prisoners on the ninety-six mile automobile trip from Birmingham to Decatur. Chamlee, the only Southern lawyer associated with the defense, which is financed by the International Labor Defense, visited the prisoners in the jail this afternoon and said he found them in a state of panic.
The time of their arrival is being kept secret, but the arraignment is set for 9 A. Fearing they would be lynched en route to Decatur, they said at first that they would resist any attempt to remove them from the Birmingham jail and it took a great deal of persuasion by Mr.
Chamlee to induce them to sign the motion papers for a change of venue.
In 1931, nine black youths ages 13 to 19 were pulled from a train, arrested and taken to nearby Scottsboro, Alabama, where they were jailed, tried and declared guilty of raping two white women — a crime that never occurred.
The accused were shackled and taken to Scottsboro, the Jackson County seat, and an angry mob gathered for their trials just two weeks after the arrests.
On April 9, a judge sentenced the eight convicted defendants to death by electrocution. Supreme Court overrode the lower court's verdict in 1932 on grounds of inadequate counsel, Circuit Judge James E.
He declared a mistrial in the case of the youngest defendant, 13-year-old Roy Wright, after seven jurors insisted on the death penalty even though the prosecution had not sought it. Horton was appointed to preside over a new set of trials in Decatur, Alabama, 50 miles west of Scottsboro.
But after Horton suspended the jury's death sentence for Haywood Patterson, the first youth tried in Decatur, and called for a new trial, the Alabama Supreme Court took him off the case.
As a messenger from the Alabama attorney general's office had warned, Horton lost his re-election bid in 1934.
This factual event is almost the exact same as Tom Robinson’s case in To Kill A Mockingbird.
Raymond Daniell Special to The New York Times DECATUR, Ala., Nov. President Roosevelt was urged today to intervene and avert the danger of mob violence tomorrow when seven of the nine Negro defendants in the Scottsboro case are to be arraigned here in the Morgan County Court House.
Attorneys for the accused men, who have been in prison for nearly three years, telegraphed the President at Warm Springs, Ga., urging Governor Miller of Alabama to insure military protection for themselves and their clients. Roosevelt was informed that “the probability of a massacre of the defendants and their attorneys is extremely grave.” The tentative decision of Circuit Judge W. Callahan, who is to preside at the third trial of Heywood Patterson, opening a week from tomorrow, to dispense with the militia, occasioned the dispatch of the telegram after a direct appeal to Governor Miller, who is ill, failed to bring the desired result.
In the message sent from Birmingham and signed by Samuel S, Leibowitz, chief counsel; G. The telegram to the President, as made public by Mr.
Leibowitz in Birmingham, where he is staying pending the opening of court tomorrow, was as follows: “We earnestly ask your good offices to persuade Governor Miller of Alabama to order out sufficient National Guardsmen to provide adequate protection for the nine Scottsboro boys and their attorneys who are to appear at Decatur tomorrow for arraignment of the defendants and for trial Nov. “At the previous trial this Spring, Circuit Judge Horton, presiding, took judicial notice of incipient mob action to lynch defendants and attorneys by ordering soldiers in open court to shoot if necessary to preserve the peace.
The Scottsboro Boys case was a controversial case which took place in 1931, wherein nine boys were accused of raping two white girls while on a freight train heading to Memphis, Tennessee from Chattanoogaon, on March 25, 1931.
It was one of the most important cases in American history that had much to do with racism in the South.
This case grew quickly partly because of a growing American Communists movement taking place during that time. These boys were really poor so they couldn’t afford a good lawyer, but the Communists gathered up some cash and assigned Samuel Leibowitz, the second best lawyer in America during that time, to stand up for the nine black boys in this insidious accusation of rape.
The party thought that they could publicize their ideas of opposing racism and racial segregation and fighting for integration in workplaces during the height of the Jim Crow period of the U. In total there were four trials and most of them ended in failure.
The nine boys were sent to different prisons, but three of them were released early because they were either too young, or they were found to be blind, and so acquitted of the crime.
All-white, male juries quickly sentenced eight to death. With the Great Depression gripping the nation after the stock-market crash of 1929, people hopped freight trains to travel from one city to the next in search of work.
A long-term and ultimately successful campaign to save the youths' lives and, in time, exonerate them led to one of the most dramatic and revealing civil rights struggles in U. A fight between blacks and whites broke out on a train in Jackson County on March 25, 1931.
Trying to avoid arrest, two women on the train falsely accused nine black youths of raping them.
It was an inflammatory allegation in the Jim-Crow South, where many whites were attempting to preserve supremacy just 66 years after the end of the Civil War.
The Scottsboro Boys with defense attorney Samuel Leibowitz in the Decatur, Alabama, jail (1933). Behind them, left to right, are: Olen Montgomery, Clarence Norris, Willie Roberson, Andy Wright, Ozie Powell, Eugene Williams, Charlie Weems and Roy Wright.
Shortly after the trial, Judge Horton, who has since been supplanted, adjourned court on his own motion because of the temper of citizens.
Since the last trial two Negroes in the custody of Sheriff were recently lynched in Tuscaloosa cases; a Negro named Royal was lynched in the very city of Decatur in August and a mob visited the Decatur jail to lynch a Negro prisoner named Brown.
Only removal to Huntsville jail before mob arrived prevented his assassination. Have affidavits naming many persons in Decatur and neighboring towns who have openly voiced intention of ‘getting the niggers and their attorneys.’ “Editorials today in Birmingham Age Herald and Post show their appreciation of imminence of danger and urge official to call out militia.
Despite this situation, the Governor has rejected a plea for State troops to guard prisoners and attorneys.
The probability of massacre of defendants and attorneys is extremely grave.